Research Article Open Access
Synthesis, characterization and biological applications of biofunctional gold nanoparticles for systemic circulation and biological sustainability
Manoj Kumar Goshisht*
Department of Chemistry, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, 144011, Punjab, India
Adv. Mater. Proc., 2017, 2 (9), 535-546
Publication Date (Web):05 September 2017
Copyright © IAAM-VBRI Press
Designing nanomaterials for biomedical applications is not a trivial task. Avoidance of the immune system, stability in physiological media, and cell membranes, low toxicity, and optimal bioperformances are critical for the success of the designed nanomaterials. This review focuses on the study of protein-protein and protein-carbohydrates interactions. Most of the biological functions involving biochemical process are closely controlled by protein-protein interactions. Multi-protein complexes perform several catalytic functions. The review also focuses on the in vitro synthesis of bioconjugated nanoparticles and their biological applications such as antimicrobial agents and drug delivery vehicles. The synthesized nanoparticles act as sensor for such interactions. The in vitro synthesis of Au NPs also helps to understand such interactions with better clarity, which are otherwise elusive in the absence of NPs due to their highly complex nature. Both lysozyme (Lys) / Cytochrome, c (Cyt. c) and lysozyme/zein complexes showed remarkable surface adsorption on NP surfaces. The former system produced pH responsive NPs due to its amphiphilic nature and good antimicrobial properties while the latter system produced pH insensitive NPs due to its hydrophobic nature dominated by zein due to presence of non-polar amino acids such as leucine, alanine and proline. Due to insignificant hemolysis both systems may be used as drug delivery vehicles in systemic circulation. The diethylaminoethyl dextran chloride (DEAE) -protein interactions showed that DEAE-BSA and DEAE-Lys mixtures are amphiphilic whereas DEAE-zein mixture is hydrophobic in nature. All different complexes demonstrate strong surface adsorption on both presynthesized Au NPs as well as in vitro synthesis of Au NPs, which leads to the formation of biofunctional Au NPs best suited for biological applications in systemic circulation. The biological applicability is demonstrated from the hemolysis measurements where both DEAE−BSA as well as DEAE−Lys coated Au NPs do not show any marked hemolysis, thus proving to be the best suited vehicles for drug release in systemic circulation. DEAE−zein coated NPs, on the other hand, showed this behavior only in the DEAE rich region of the mixture, but in the protein rich region hemolysis dominates. Copyright © 2017 VBRI Press.