Temperature dependence green reduction of graphene oxide by urea

Pankaj Chamoli1, Malay K. Das2, Kamal K. Kar1, 2*

1Advanced Nanoengineering Materials Laboratory, Materials Science Programme,  Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India

2Advanced Nanoengineering Materials Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering,  Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India

Adv. Mater. Lett., 2017, 8 (3), pp 217-222

DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.6559

Publication Date (Web): Jan 28, 2017

E-mail: kamalkk@iitk.ac.in


In the present study, temperature dependence reduction of graphene oxide into graphene nanosheets has been demonstrated using green reducing agent, urea. As synthesized graphene nanosheets have been characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-visible spectroscopy(UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS). Raman analysis confirms that the maximum reduction of graphene oxide is observed at 140 oC, and reached to high Raman D to G band intensity ratio of ~ 1.41. FTIR analysis supports the Raman signature of maximum reduction of oxygen functional groups from graphene oxide at 140 oC. XPS analysis validates the Raman and FTIR signature of maximum removal of oxygen species from graphene oxide at 140 oC, and confirms the attainment of the C/O ratio of ~ 5.66. Result indicates that the urea offers excellent reductive ability at high temperature to produce graphene nanosheets.


Graphene nanosheet, green reduction, graphene oxide, reducing agent, urea.

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