Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina – UDESC, Technological Sciences Center – CCT, Mechanical Engineering Department – DEM, Materials Science and Engineering Program – PGCEM, Joinville, Brazil
Adv. Mater. Lett., 2017, 8 (1), pp 19-23
Publication Date (Web): Nov 12, 2016
Copyright © IAAM-VBRI Press
Microporous calcium phosphate biomaterials are known for their physical and biological applications. Among the best known are the stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP). This is because these biomaterials exhibit chemical and crystallographic compositions which are similar to that found in bones and teeth. The use of nanotechnology enables obtaining calcium phosphate nanostructured powders and calcium phosphate nanocomposite matrix formed by a second nano phase of type SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3-a, ZrO2, Mg. Different methods and techniques for the synthesis and preparation of nanostructured powders and biomaterials are noted in the literature, but it is known that not all lead to the same results. Calcium phosphates nanostructured biomaterials are a new class of biomaterials which provide new physical, morphological, nanostructural and microstructural features with interconnected microporosity which are promising to wettability, capillary action, cell adhesion and proliferation on the surface of grains and micropores. Based on research of these biomaterials, it has been found that they show potential applications in traumatology, orthopedic and dental applications in reconstruction, defects and bone tissue repairing, implants attachment and dental remineralization treatment. This study was aimed at the sintering and characterization of an HA matrix and three nanocomposite biomaterials with 5% by volume of the respective second phases: SiO2, ZrO2 and Al2O3-a in the HA matrix. The HA powder and nanocomposite HA/SiO2 were sintered at 1100 °C/2h. HA/ZrO2 nanocomposite powder followed two sintering conditions: a temperature of 1100 °C/2h and the other, at 1300 ºC/2h. HA/Al2O3-a nanocomposite powder was only sintered at 1300 ºC/2h. The biomaterials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and open porosity and hydrostatic density were also determined by applying the Arthur method. The results are encouraging and show for HA, HA/SiO2, HA/ZrO2 biomaterials (obtained by sintering at 1100 °C) interconnected microporous microstructures, formed by fine grains which are favorable for the expected wettability and capillarity characteristics.
Hydroxyapatite, nanocomposite, sintering, microstructure.