The cover photo describes the ring topological structure of carbon nucleus (using vortex-fractal-ring theory), which consists from two globules with 3 protons globule substructures. As discussed by, this vortex-fractal-ring theory is a new and original view of elementary particles and the structure of atomic nuclei, atoms, and molecules. Its basics are simple for understanding through the comprehensive topological structure that does not need description by complicated mathematical formulas. This theory together with grammatical evolution can design new models of nanostructures and allows us to understand the fundamental physical and chemical reasons for the stability and reactivity of atoms and molecules.
Determination of leachate pollution content in soil using in-situ dielectric measurement
Mohammed Dahim1*, Rabah Ismail2, Hashem Al-Mattarneh1, 3, Randa Hatamleh3
1Vice president for project, King Khalid University, Abha 61411, Saudi Arabia
2University Technology PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak DR, Malaysia
3Department of Civil Engineering, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163, Jordan
Adv. Mater. Lett., 2019, 10 (4), pp 298-301
Publication Date (Web): Jan 19, 2019
Copyright © 2018 VBRI Press
This paper presents the development of an electromagnetic probe to accurately measure the soil electromagnetic properties such as dielectric constant and loss factor in the field. The in-site dielectric probe sensor is designed and methods have been developed to calibrate and validate the accuracy of the sensor in measuring dielectric properties of the material. Clean saturated sandy soil material with porosity 40% was used. The soil samples were contaminated by leachate from municipality solid waste from the landfill site. Five levels of leachate contamination were prepared, ranging from 0% to 10%. Dielectric properties of soil polluted sample were measured using the proposed in-site dielectric sensor. Dielectric properties of contaminated soil were evaluated at a different frequency and leachate content. The result showed that both dielectric constant and loss factor decree with increasing frequency due to the reduction of conductance current at high frequency. Also, the result showed that the dielectric properties of leachate-contaminated soil decrease with increasing leachate content while the loss factor increase with increasing leachate content. Mathematical models were developed to determine the relationship between soil dielectric constant, loss factor and soil leachate pollution content.
Dielectric sensor, soil material, leachate, soil pollution, dielectric properties.