Single- and multi-layered porous titanium via metal injection moulding

Mohammed Menhal Shbeh1,2*, Russell Goodall1

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK

2Department of Production Engineering and Metallurgy, University of Technology, Al-Sinaa' Street, 10066, Baghdad, Iraq

Adv. Mater. Lett., 2017, 8 (4), pp 500-505

DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.7052

Publication Date (Web): Mar 15, 2017



Titanium foams are advanced materials with macroporous structure that have a great potential in a variety of areas such as biomedical and functional applications. They are characterized by their reduced density and stiffness, with high permeability and excellent biocompatibility. One production technique for Ti foams with promising results is Metal Injection Moulding (MIM). So far most of the porous titanium produced by this technique has a very basic design with low percentage of porosity, thus limiting its potential in the biomedical industry, among others. In this study, the use of MIM in combination with a space holder to produce single and multi-layered porous Ti with high volume percentage of porosity will be explored. The results show that it is possible to produce Ti foam with a total volume percentage of porosity of 61 % through MIM technology. In addition, it is also feasible to combine different porous layers resulting in multi-layered porous titanium parts with gradient porosity that could have a huge potential in a wide range of applications, especially for biomedical implants, where these pores can promote bone ingrowth as well as reduce stiffness to match that of the natural bone, thus alleviating the stress shielding problem.


Titanium foam, metal injection moulding, porous metal, space holder, micro-CT.

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