1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia UTM, 81310, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
2Department of Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia UTM, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
3Faculty of Science & Natural Resources, University Malaysia Sabah UMS, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu Sabah, Malaysia
Adv. Mater. Lett., 2017, 8 (1), pp 70-76
Publication Date (Web): Nov 12, 2016
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In this study, the low-cost activated carbon from pistachio shell waste was sought through experiments using rapid synthesis of microwave-induced pyrolysis. The effect parameters of activating agents and microwave power on the surface area and carbon yield were studied. The results revealed that, well-grown pore structures with the highest surface area (681.2 m2g-1) and the highest carbon yield (70.3%) were produced using K2CO3 as an activating agent and 600 W power level exposed to 15-minute irradiation. The activated carbon with the highest porosity (AC600) was subsequently utilized in the tungsten carbide (WC) preparation which employed a facile method of mechanical milling. Finally, a high-thermal treatment under inert conditions was performed to completely convert W into WC. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst were evaluated by N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, FESEM and TEM. It was observed that, the tungsten carbide produced was small and uniform spherical nanoparticles with average diameters of 60 to 100 nm. High porosity and high surface area of catalyst support were identified as factors leading to a homogeneous distribution of metal catalyst. Therefore, the nanoparticles of WC produced were attributed to activated carbon with high porosity (AC600) due to well distribution of the tungsten crystal phase.
WC, activated carbon, microwave, pyrolysis, nanoparticles.