Geometrical Characterization of Wire-and-Arc Additive Manufactured Steel Element

Vittoria Laghi1*, Michele Palermo1, Giada Gasparini1, Valentina Alena Girelli1, Tomaso Trombetti1

1Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Bologna, 40136, Bologna, Italy

Adv. Mater. Lett., 2019, 10 (10), pp 695-699

DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0019

Publication Date (Web): May 18, 2019

Corresponding author: Tel: (+39) 0512093235; E-mail:


In the last decades Additive Manufacturing has gained fundamental importance in the development of digital fabrication for the automotive, aerospace, biomedical and only lately civil engineering field. In particular, the technology of Wire-and-Arc Additive Manufacturing, based on a welding process adopted on a robotic arm, is the most suitable to realize structural elements which usually requires large dimensions of the printed outcome, with still a good mechanical response of the printed metal material. The authors have been part of a pioneering work which provides the first insight into the material and geometrical properties relevant to characterize 308LSi stainless steel elements to realize the first 3D-printed steel footbridge to be held in Amsterdam by 2020 and manufactured by the Dutch company MX3D. In detail, the work presents the first results of an intense geometrical study to characterize the intrinsic irregularities of the printed outcome, by means of hand measurements and high-precision 3D scan acquisition of different element types. © VBRI Press.


3D printing, additive manufacturing, geometrical properties, experimental tests, 3D scan

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