Cover page describe the Typical fracture surface of nuclear graphite blocks after irradiation (cracks occur during reactor operation). This picture Summarize the Fractographic studies of GR-280 nuclear graphite after irradiation up to neutron fluence above the turnaround dose (with a decrease in of the mechanical properties to the values close to the initial one after primary radiation-induced increase) showed along with the presence of transcrystalline fracture, appearance of intercrystalline fracture regions along the “filler-binder” type boundaries.
Multilayer ceramics as integration platform for sensors in in-vitro cell culture reactors
Heike Bartsch1*, Martin Baca2, Uta Fernekorn2, Marcel Himmerlich3, Jens Müller1,Andreas Schober2, Hartmut Witte4
Technische Universität Ilmenau, IMN MacroNano®, Ilmenau, 98693, Germany
Adv. Mater. Lett., 2018, 9 (11), pp 748-752
Publication Date (Web): Jul 24, 2018
Copyright © 2018 VBRI Press
Monitoring systems that are capable to record neuronal activity in in-vitro cell cultures are prerequisite to the comprehensive investigation of neuronal processes. Low temperature cofired ceramics are a suitable platform for rapid prototyping of biological reactors, entailing a wide assortment of integration-capable sensors. Neuronal spikes capture is fundamental for understanding of the signal propagation within the neuronal network. It requires reliable electrodes, which can be arranged 3-dimensionally in an in vitro cell culture. Thick film gold electrodes have been proven for such applications, however their characteristics especially at small dimensions stray strongly. This work investigates thin films separating small thick film gold electrodes and an electrolyte solution with regard to their influence on the charge transport processes in such systems. PEDOT:PSS layer and TiOxNy deposited on LTCC gold electrodes, including their impedance characteristics are discussed and compared. TiOxNy layers with serial resistance Rs of 32 kΩ and serial capacitance Cs of 4.1 pF measured at 1 kHz are proposed to be the used as sensing elements in 3-dimensional in vitro cell cultures.
Bio-reactors, low temperature co-fired ceramics, LTCC, thick film technology, sensor integration